TCMVET Baituxiao Literature Summary

TCMVET Baituxiao supplements benefit from a blend of various herbs and mushrooms, and we have listed the scientific literature for some of the ingredients; for your reference. The text is too long, it takes about 5-10 minutes to read.

  • Hedyotis diffusa(HDW)
  1. A total of 58 different antineoplastic active compounds isolated from HDW were discussed in this review, including iridoids, flavonoids, flavonol glycosides, anthraquinones, phenolic acids and their derivatives, sterols, and volatile oils kind. Their antitumor activities include inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, induction of tumor cell apoptosis and tumor angiogenesis, modulation of host immune responses, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, and protective autophagy. Furthermore, we provide up-to-date and systematic evidence for the antitumor activity and possible underlying molecular mechanisms of HDW.
  2. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Hedyotis diffusa is known for its bitter, sweet and cold properties. It is used to clear heat, resolve toxins, and quicken blood. It has been used to treat a variety of ailments such as esophagitis, bronchitis, dysentery, mastitis, pneumonia, appendicitis, pelvitis, and some tumors.

Han X, Zhang X, Wang Q, Wang L, Yu S. Antitumor potential of Hedyotis diffusa Willd: A systematic review of bioactive constituents and underlying molecular mechanisms. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Oct;130:110735. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110735. Epub 2020 Sep 12. PMID: 34321173.

Chen R, He J, Tong X, Tang L, Liu M. The Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Rubiaceae): A Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Quality Control and Pharmacokinetics. Molecules. 2016 May 30;21(6):710. doi: 10.3390/molecules21060710. PMID: 27248992; PMCID: PMC6273454.

  • Astragalus
  1. Astragalus has been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine in combination with other herbs. Its root is used for health care purposes and has been promoted as a dietary supplement for many conditions, including upper respiratory infections, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), asthma, chronic fatigue syndrome, and chronic kidney disease, among others. It’s also promoted to strengthen and regulate the immune system.
  2. Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) have been shown to regulate the immune function by enhancing the immune organ index, promoting the proliferation of immune cells, stimulating the release of cytokines, and affecting the secretion of immunoglobulin (Ig) and conduction of immune signals.
  3. In terms of tumor treatment, Astragalus polysaccharides (PG2) have been shown to enhance the M1 polarization of macrophages, functional maturation of dendritic cells, and T cell-mediated anticancer immune responses in patients with lung cancer. Another study found that extracts of Astragalus membranaceus overcome tumor immune tolerance by inhibition of tumor programmed cell death protein ligand-1 expression.

Bamodu OA, Kuo KT, Wang CH, Huang WC, Wu ATH, Tsai JT, Lee KY, Yeh CT, Wang LS. Astragalus polysaccharides (PG2) Enhances the M1 Polarization of Macrophages, Functional Maturation of Dendritic Cells, and T Cell-Mediated Anticancer Immune Responses in Patients with Lung Cancer. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 20;11(10):2264. doi: 10.3390/nu11102264. PMID: 31547048; PMCID: PMC6836209.

Chang HL, Kuo YH, Wu LH, Chang CM, Cheng KJ, Tyan YC, Lee CH. The extracts of Astragalus membranaceus overcome tumor immune tolerance by inhibition of tumor programmed cell death protein ligand-1 expression. Int J Med Sci. 2020 Mar 26;17(7):939-945. doi: 10.7150/ijms.42978. PMID: 32308547; PMCID: PMC7163360.

Zheng Y, Ren W, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Liu D, Liu Y. A Review of the Pharmacological Action of Astragalus Polysaccharide. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 24;11:349. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00349. PMID: 32265719; PMCID: PMC7105737.

  • Scutellaria barbata
  1. Scutellaria barbata has a long history of medical use in Traditional Chinese Medicine for removing heat and toxic material, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, and inducing diuresis to reduce edema. Recent pharmacology investigations have provided evidence for its anti-cancer, bacteriostasis, anti-virus, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation and immunity enhancement properties.

Chen Q, Rahman K, Wang SJ, Zhou S, Zhang H. Scutellaria barbata: A Review on Chemical Constituents, Pharmacological Activities and Clinical Applications. Curr Pharm Des. 2020;26(1):160-175. doi: 10.2174/1381612825666191216124310. PMID: 31840605.

Tsai CC, Lin CS, Hsu CR, Chang CM, Chang IW, Lin LW, Hung CH, Wang JL. Using the Chinese herb Scutellaria barbata against extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections: in vitro and in vivo studies. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Mar 20;18(1):96. doi: 10.1186/s12906-018-2151-7. PMID: 29554903; PMCID: PMC5859712.

  • Rehmannia glutinosa
  1. Rehmannia glutinosa (RG) is a widely used herb for clearing heat and cooling the blood. Polysaccharides from Rehmannia glutinosa (RGPs) have a variety of biological activities, including antioxidation, hypoglycemia, immune enhancement, hematopoiesis promotion, and antianxiety. RGPs have a wide range of pharmacological activities, including antitumor, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective effect, hypoglycemic activity, cardioprotective and antioxidant activities.

Bian Z, Zhang R, Zhang X, Zhang J, Xu L, Zhu L, Ma Y, Liu Y. Extraction, structure and bioactivities of polysaccharides from Rehmannia glutinosa: A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2023 Apr 6;305:116132. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2022.116132. Epub 2023 Jan 10. PMID: 36634722.

Zhang RX, Li MX, Jia ZP. Rehmannia glutinosa: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 May 8;117(2):199-214. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.02.018. Epub 2008 Mar 10. PMID: 18407446.

  • Angelica sinensis (oliv.)diels
  1. Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels is a well-known Chinese herbal medicine. Its root has been used historically as hematopoietic and anti-inflammatory agents for thousands of years. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that A. sinensis has hematopoietic, immunomodulatory, antitumor, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities, and gastrointestinal protective and anti-inflammatory effects.

"Full-length transcriptome analysis provides new insights into the early bolting occurrence in medicinal Angelica sinensis" by Xue Gao, Fengxia Guo, Yuan Chen, Gang Bai, Yuxiao Liu, Jianqin Jin & Qing Wang. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-92494-4

"Recent progress in the research of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels polysaccharides: extraction, purification, structure and bioactivities" by Chunyan Hou, Mingsong Yin, Ping Lan, Huiru Wang, Hui Nie & Xiaolong Ji. DOI: 10.1186/s40538-021-00214-x

  • Bai-zhu (Atractylodes)
  1. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, immune regulation, liver protection, intestinal health promotion, neuroprotective and other effects.

Liu C, Wang S, Xiang Z, Xu T, He M, Xue Q, Song H, Gao P, Cong Z. The chemistry and efficacy benefits of polysaccharides from Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Aug 25;13:952061. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.952061. PMID: 36091757; PMCID: PMC9452894.

Ruqiao L, Yueli C, Xuelan Z, Huifen L, Xin Z, Danjie Z, Le S, Yanxue Z. Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae: a review of photochemistry, pharmacokinetics and pharmacology. Pharmazie. 2020 Mar 20;75(2):42- 55. doi: 10.1691/ph.2020.9738. PMID: 32213234.

Bailly C. Atractylenolides, essential components of Atractylodes-based traditional herbal medicines: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Jan 15;891:173735. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.203 Ejphar.207 v 18 . PMID: 33220271.

Luo L, Cai J, Zhou Z, Tang W, Xue J, Liu J, Hu H, Yang F. Polysaccharides from Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae: A Review on Their Extraction, Purification, Structure, and Bioactivities. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2022 Aug 17;2022:2338533. doi: 10.1155/2022/2338533. PMID: 36034948; PMCID: PMC9402290.

  • Herb-paris(Paris polyphylla)
  1. It has been traditionally used for its analgesic and hemostatic effects . According to a review published in PubMed, more than 320 chemical components have been isolated from the genus Paris, including steroidal saponins, C-21 steroids, phytosterols, insect hormones, pentacyclic triterpenes, flavonoids, and other compounds. Arrays of pharmacological investigations revealed that compounds and extracts of Paris species possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects, such as antitumor, cytotoxic, antimicrobial, antifungal, hemostatic, and anti-inflammatory activities .
  2. Chong-lou, the rhizome of Paris polyphylla, has been used in herbal regimes to treat parotitis, mastitis and certain malignant tumors for thousands of years in traditional medicine. Polyphyllin I (PPI) is the main bioactive component in Paris polyphylla. Recent studies of PPI in various types of cancers have shown that PPI may exert a broad spectrum of anti-tumor effects, including inducing cell cycle arrest, inducing cell apoptosis, inducing autophagy, anti-angiogenesis, sensitizing tumors to chemotherapy, and participating in the modulation of inflammatory and immune response. Along with the growing research interest in PPI as well as accumulation of experimental evidences, this review periodically summarized the recent advances in regard to PPI's anti-tumor propensities in various cancers and the underlying mechanisms for future prospective research.

Ding YG, Zhao YL, Zhang J, Zuo ZT, Zhang QZ, Wang YZ. The traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties of Paris L. (Liliaceae): A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Oct 5;278:114293. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114293. Epub 2021 Jun 5. PMID: 34102270.

Anti-cancer effects of Polyphyllin I: An update in 5 years doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2019.108936

Paris polyphylla - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics.

  • Curcuma phaeocaulis
  1. Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. is used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as health food and folk medicine for removing blood stasis, alleviating pain and tumor therapy . According to a study published in PubMed, it has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities .

Hou Y, Lu CL, Zeng QH, Jiang JG. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities of ingredients of Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. EXCLI J. 2015 Jun 12;14:706-13. doi: 10.17179/excli2015-231. PMID: 26648822; PMCID: PMC4669906.

  • Heal-all(Prunella vulgaris)
  1. Heal-all (Prunella vulgaris) is a perennial herb native to Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America ³. It has been traditionally used as an expectorant, anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, and anti-rheumatic ². According to a study published in ScienceDirect, it contains flavonoids, organic acids, polysaccharides, pentacyclic triterpenes and volatile oils ¹. It has a broad range of biological properties including anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and antibacterial activities ¹.

GC–MS analysis and anti–microbial activity of Prunella vulgaris L. extracts doi:10.1016/j.jics.2022.100460

Mir RH, Bhat MF, Sawhney G, Kumar P, Andrabi NI, Shaikh M, Mohi-Ud-Din R, Masoodi MH. Prunella vulgaris L: Critical Pharmacological, Expository Traditional Uses and Extensive Phytochemistry: A Review. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2022;19(1):e140122191102. doi: 10.2174/1570163818666210203181542. PMID: 33538676.

  • Red peony root
  1. Red peony root is derived from **Paeonia lactiflora** and has been found to exhibit a range of pharmacological effects. Studies have shown that it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, cardiovascular protective, and neuroprotective properties². The therapeutic effects of Red peony root on the nervous system include neuroprotection, antidepressant, sedative, analgesic and anticonvulsant effects.

Li P, Shen J, Wang Z, Liu S, Liu Q, Li Y, He C, Xiao P. Genus Paeonia: A comprehensive review on traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, clinical application, and toxicology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Apr 6;269:113708. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113708. Epub 2020 Dec 24. PMID: 33346027.

  • Suberect spatholobus stem
  1. The vine stem of Spatholobus suberectus Dunn (SS) is used as a traditional herbal medicine in China. Chinese herbal medicines are well known as natural bioactive compounds that can be used as new medicines, and their antioxidant and anticancer effects have also been reported. One study found that an ethanol extract of Spatholobus suberectus stem effectively suppressed the viability and proliferation of rat C6 glioma cells through an antioxidant effect. The extract was found to regulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, induce mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increase p21 protein expression.
  2. Another study characterized the major phenolic components of Spatholobus suberectus stem as homogeneous B-type procyanidin conjugates using a liquid chromatography with diode-array detection-ESI mass spectrometry (LC-DAD/ESI-MS) method. This is the first report on the occurrence of most B-type procyanidins in this herb. The total phenolics extract was assayed for inhibitory activity on human neutrophil elastase and its IC₅₀ was found to be 1.33 μg/mL.

Spatholobus suberectus inhibits cancer cell growth by inducing apoptosis and arresting cell cycle at G2/M checkpoint doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.11.004

Kim H, Yi SS, Lee HK, Heo TH, Park SK, Jun HS, Song KD, Kim SJ. Antiproliferative Effect of Vine Stem Extract from Spatholobus Suberectus Dunn on Rat C6 Glioma Cells Through Regulation of ROS, Mitochondrial Depolarization, and P21 Protein Expression. Nutr Cancer. 2018 May-Jun;70(4):605-619. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2018.1460673. Epub 2018 Apr 18. PMID: 29668336.

  • Root of catclaw buttercup(Ranunculi Ternati Radix)
  1. In traditional Chinese medicine, it is known for its ability to resolve phlegm and dissipate nodulation, remove toxicity and resolve swelling. It is used in the treatment of scrofula, malaria, pulmonary tuberculosis, snake and insect bites, toothache, pharyngitis, migraine, and deep-rooted boil.
  2. According to a review of its chemical constituents, pharmacology, quality control and clinical applications, Ranunculi Ternati Radix (RRT) mainly contains glycosides, organic acids, esters, sterols, flavonoids, alkaloids and volatile oils. The pharmacological activity of RRT includes immune regulation, anti-tumor, anti-tuberculosis, antioxidant, antibacterial, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. This plant is especially effective in the treatment of cancer, tuberculosis, thyroid and nasopharynges disorders.

Wang C, Wang J, Gao M, Gao P, Gao D, Zhang H, Mu X, Qiao M. Radix Ranunculi ternati: review of its chemical constituents, pharmacology, quality control and clinical applications. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2022 Jul 15;74(7):930-952. doi: 10.1093/jpp/rgac018. PMID: 35596792.

  • Appendiculate cremastra pseudobulb(Shancigu)
  1. Shancigu is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine known as **Pseudobulbus Cremastrae seu Pleiones (PCsP)**. It has the property of relieving fever, counteracting toxicity, dissipating phlegm and resolving masses¹. The dry tubers of PB, PY, CA are considered to be the official sources of the PCsP in TCM.
  2. At present, 190 compounds have been isolated from C. appendiculata, including phenanthrene, dihydrophenanthrene, bibenzyl, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides, aromatics, and other compounds. These compounds have been reported to have a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-angiogenesis, anti-oxidation etc.

Liu J, He C, Tang Y, Liu W, Xu Y, Li Z, Qin X, Jin S. A review of Cremastra appendiculata (D.Don) Makino as a traditional herbal medicine and its main components. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Oct 28;279:114357. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114357. Epub 2021 Jun 22. PMID: 34166737.

Wang J, Xie J, Chen H, Qiu X, Cui H, Liu Y, Sahu SK, Fang D, Li T, Wang M, Chen Y, Liu H, Zhang J, Wang B. A draft genome of the medicinal plant Cremastra appendiculata (D. Don) provides insights into the colchicine biosynthetic pathway. Commun Biol. 2022 Nov 25;5(1):1294. doi: 10.1038/s42003-022-04229-4. PMID: 36434059; PMCID: PMC9700805.

  • Dandelion
  1. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), dandelion is referred to as ”Pu Gong Ying’ and is considered to be energetically bitter, drying, and cooling. According to TCM, dandelion clears heat from the liver and has a beneficial effect on the stomach and lungs.
  2. Dandelion has been studied for its effects on digestion, inflammation modulation, and immune-modulation. It is also full of potent antioxidants.
  3. In terms of its effects on tumors, studies have shown that dandelion extracts can induce breast cancer cell apoptosis and exhibited anti-tumor properties.

Ovadje P, Roma A, Steckle M, Nicoletti L, Arnason JT, Pandey S. Advances in the research and development of natural health products as main stream cancer therapeutics. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:751348. doi: 10.1155/2015/751348. Epub 2015 Mar 26. PMID: 25883673; PMCID: PMC4391654.

  • Poria cocos
  1. Poria cocos is a saprophytic fungus that grows in diverse species of Pinus. Its sclerotium, called fu-ling or hoelen, is used in traditional Chinese medicine for its diuretic, sedative, and tonic effects. It has a variety of pharmacological effects, such as a reduction in swelling and inflammation, and detoxification.
  2. In terms of its effects on tumors, Poria cocos has been reported to have anti-tumor properties. Its main active ingredients are triterpenes and polysaccharides which have been reported to have pharmacological effects on anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulation, and liver and kidney protection.

Ríos JL. Chemical constituents and pharmacological properties of Poria cocos. Planta Med. 2011 May;77(7):681-91. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1270823. Epub 2011 Feb 23. PMID: 21347995.

Ma X, Wu J, Liu C, Li J, Dong S, Zhang X, Wang J, Liu L, Zhang X, Sun P, Zhuang J, Sun C. Deciphering of Key Pharmacological Pathways of Poria Cocos Intervention in Breast Cancer Based on Integrated Pharmacological Method. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2020 Oct 9;2020:4931531. doi: 10.1155/2020/4931531. PMID: 33149754; PMCID: PMC7603580.

  • Chinese honeysuckle
  1. Chinese honeysuckle has been shown to have pharmacological effects. In traditional Chinese medicine, honeysuckle is used for its detoxification, anti-inflammatory, anti-lipid, anti-endotoxin, and antioxidant properties. It is believed to help cure colds, fever, inflammation, swelling, boils, sores, and viral and bacterial infections.

Analysis of Medicinal Composition and Pharmacological Action of Chinese Medicine Honeysuckle doi:10.1088/1757-899X/569/2/022030

  • Gardeniae fructus
  1. Gardeniae fructus (GF), an evergreen Rubiaceae shrub, is one of the most commonly used Chinese herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and has been used for over a thousand years. It is usually prescribed for the treatment of brain aging, vascular aging, bone and joint aging, and other age-related diseases. It has been demonstrated that several effective compounds of GF, such as geniposide, genipin and crocin, have neuroprotective or related activities which are involved in senile disease treatment. These bioactivities include the mitochondrion dysfunction, antioxidative activity, apoptosis regulation and an anti-inflammatory activity, which related to multiple signaling pathways such as the nuclear factor-κB pathway, AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. To lay the ground for fully elucidating the potential mechanisms of GF in treating age-related pathologies, we summarized the available research conducted in the last fifteen years about GF and its effective components, which have been studied in vivo and in vitro.

Lv S, Ding Y, Zhao H, Liu S, Zhang J, Wang J. Therapeutic Potential and Effective Components of the Chinese Herb Gardeniae Fructus in the Treatment of Senile Disease. Aging Dis. 2018 Dec 4;9(6):1153-1164. doi: 10.14336/AD.2018.0112. PMID: 30574425; PMCID: PMC6284761.

  • Fritillaria thunbergii(Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii)
  1. Bulbus Fritillariae Thunbergii (FTB) has been widely used as an antitussive herb for thousands of years in China. It has been used to clear heat, resolve phlegm, relieve cough, remove toxicity and disperse abscesses and nodules.
  2. Thirteen pharmacological effects of FTB were identified, including anti-cancer, tracheobronchial relaxation, antitussive, expectorant, anti-muscarinic, anti-inflammation, anti-thyroid, regulation of blood rheology, antiulcer, anti-diarrhea, pain suppression, antioxidation and neuroprotection.

Li H, Hung A, Li M, Yang AWH. Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 3;20(7):1667. doi: 10.3390/ijms20071667. PMID: 30987173; PMCID: PMC6479889.

Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. (Zhe Beimu): A review on its traditional uses, phytochemical profile and pharmacological properties doi:10.1016/j.fct.2021.112289

  • Sparganium(Sparganium Rhizome)
  1. Sparganium Rhizome, also known as Sparganii Rhizoma (SR), is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for hundreds of years. It has been used for eliminating blood stasis, promoting the flow of Qi, removing the retention of undigested food and relieving pain.
  2. As an important TCM, SR has been demonstrated by modern pharmacological researches to have significant bioactivities, especially on anti-tumor, antithrombotic, and estrogen antagonistic activities.

Jia J, Li X, Ren X, Liu X, Wang Y, Dong Y, Wang X, Sun S, Xu X, Li X, Song R, Ma J, Yu A, Fan Q, Wei J, Yan X, Wang X, She G. Sparganii Rhizoma: A review of traditional clinical application, processing, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Mar 25;268:113571. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2020.113571. Epub 2020 Nov 9. PMID: 33181282.

  • Arnebia euchroma (royle) johnst
  1. Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst is native to Inner Mongolia and Northwest of China. It holds promising potentials for antitumor effects via multiple-target mechanisms. Shikonin, alkannin and their derivatives are the main ingredients of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst and have shown antitumor activity in apoptosis, necroptosis and immunogenic cell death .

Zhang X, Cui JH, Meng QQ, Li SS, Zhou W, Xiao S. Advance in Anti-tumor Mechanisms of Shikonin, Alkannin and their Derivatives. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2018;18(2):164-172. doi: 10.2174/1389557517666170228114809. PMID: 28245783.

Characterizations and immunostimulatory activities of a polysaccharide from Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst. roots doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.11.238

  • Sichuan lovage(Szechuan Lovage Rhizome)
  1. It has the effects of promoting qi and blood circulation, dispelling wind and relieving pain, because it has a reputation for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in China for thousands of years. In addition, it also has antioxidant, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities.

Li W, Tang Y, Chen Y, Duan JA. Advances in the chemical analysis and biological activities of chuanxiong. Molecules. 2012 Sep 6;17(9):10614-51. doi: 10.3390/molecules170910614. PMID: 22955453; PMCID: PMC6268834.

  • Tienchi ginseng(Panax notoginseng)
  1. More than 200 chemical components were isolated from Panax notoginseng, including saponins, polysaccharides, dianthus, amino acids, flavonoids, phytosterols, cyclic peptides, sugars, fatty acids, volatile oils, aliphatic acetylenes, and trace elements. Has multiple effects, hemostatic and wound healing activity, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, hypoglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity, anticoagulant activity, neuroprotective effect, hepatoprotective effect, renal protective effect, anti-tumor activity, anti-vascular senescence.

Therapeutic Potential and Cellular Mechanisms of Panax Notoginseng on Prevention of Aging and Cell Senescence-Associated Diseases DOI: 10.14336/AD.2017.0724

Zhang S, Chen C, Lu W, Wei L. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and clinical use of Panax notoginseng flowers buds. Phytother Res. 2018 Nov;32(11):2155-2163. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6167. Epub 2018 Aug 8. PMID: 30088301.

Xie W, Meng X, Zhai Y, Zhou P, Ye T, Wang Z, Sun G, Sun X. Panax Notoginseng Saponins: A Review of Its Mechanisms of Antidepressant or Anxiolytic Effects and Network Analysis on Phytochemistry and Pharmacology. Molecules. 2018 Apr 17;23(4):940. doi: 10.3390/molecules23040940. PMID: 29673237; PMCID: PMC6017639.

  • Eclipta
  1. Eclipta prostrata, also known as Eclipta, is a traditional herbal medicine that has long been used in Asia and South America for the therapy of hemorrhagic diseases (e.g. hemoptysis, hematemesis, hematuria, epistaxis and uterine bleeding), skin diseases, respiratory disorders, coronary heart disease, hair loss, vitiligo, snake bite and those caused by the deficiency of liver and kidney.
  2. Various phytochemical classes have been identified and isolated from the plant covering triterpenes, flavonoids, thiopenes, coumestans, steroids and others. Among these, coumestans are reported as the most common ingredients. The isolated crude extracts and individual compounds have been reported to exhibit promising pharmacological properties, such as hepatoprotective, osteoprotective, cytotoxic, hypoglycaemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, hypolipidemic, promoting hair growth, rejuvenative and neuroprotective effects.

Feng L, Zhai YY, Xu J, Yao WF, Cao YD, Cheng FF, Bao BH, Zhang L. A review on traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Dec 5;245:112109. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2019.112109. Epub 2019 Aug 5. PMID: 31395303.

Timalsina D, Devkota HP. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. (Asteraceae): Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Biological Activities. Biomolecules. 2021 Nov 22;11(11):1738. doi: 10.3390/biom11111738. PMID: 34827736; PMCID: PMC8615741.

  • Chinese licorice(Chinese Licorice Root)
  1. Chinese Licorice Root is derived from the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis or Glycyrrhiza glabra. It is a common traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has several pharmacological effects, such as anti-inflammation, detoxification, antibacterial, antitussive, and immunomodulatory effects, especially in respiratory diseases.

Yang R, Wang LQ, Yuan BC, Liu Y. The Pharmacological Activities of Licorice. Planta Med. 2015 Dec;81(18):1654-69. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1557893. Epub 2015 Sep 14. PMID: 26366756.

  • Chinese sage(Salvia chinensis)
  1. Salvia chinensis, also known as Chinese sage, has been widely studied for its pharmacological properties. In China, about 40 Salvia species have been used as medicinal plants for treatment of various diseases, specifically hepatic and renal diseases and those of the cardiovascular and immune systems. has been widely studied for its anticancer properties in a variety of cancers.
  2. Another study found that a polyphenol-rich extract of Salvia chinensis exhibited anticancer activity in different cancer cell lines and induced cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁-phase, apoptosis and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in pancreatic cancer cells.

Xu J, Wei K, Zhang G, Lei L, Yang D, Wang W, Han Q, Xia Y, Bi Y, Yang M, Li M. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Chinese Salvia species: A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2018 Oct 28;225:18-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2018.06.029. Epub 2018 Jun 20. PMID: 29935346.

Wang KN, Hu Y, Han LL, Zhao SS, Song C, Sun SW, Lv HY, Jiang NN, Xv LZ, Zhao ZW, Li M. Salvia chinensis Benth Inhibits Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Progression by Inducing the DNA Damage Pathway. Front Oncol. 2022 Aug 10;12:882784. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2022.882784. PMID: 36033499; PMCID: PMC9404549.

  • Schisandra(Five-flavor berry)
  1. One study found that Schisandra chinensis has high potential for beneficial health effects. Its constituents exert anti-cancer effects through the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as inhibition of invasion and metastasis in cancer cell lines and experimental animals.

Rybnikář M, Šmejkal K, Žemlička M. Schisandra chinensis and its phytotherapeutical applications. Ceska Slov Farm. 2019 Summer;68(3):95-118. English. PMID: 31431019.

Nowak A, Zakłos-Szyda M, Błasiak J, Nowak A, Zhang Z, Zhang B. Potential of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. in Human Health and Nutrition: A Review of Current Knowledge and Therapeutic Perspectives. Nutrients. 2019 Feb 4;11(2):333. doi: 10.3390/nu11020333. PMID: 30720717; PMCID: PMC6412213.

  • Asian ginseng
  1. has been shown to have a wide assortment of therapeutic applications for animals, including the treatment of irregular weight loss due to cancer. It induces cell differentiation, reduces the effects of chemical carcinogens, mitigates inflammatory carcinogenesis, induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation.

Wynn SG, Fougère BJ. Veterinary Herbal Medicine: A Systems-Based Approach. Veterinary Herbal Medicine. 2007:291–409. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-02998-8.50024-X. Epub 2009 May 15. PMCID: PMC7151902.

Kitts D, Hu C. Efficacy and safety of ginseng. Public Health Nutr. 2000 Dec;3(4A):473-85. doi: 10.1017/s1368980000000550. PMID: 11276295.

  • Ganoderma lucidum
  1. has been shown to have anti-tumor effects, mainly because of two important components in the mushroom: triterpenes and polysaccharides. Studies have shown that Reishi can inhibit tumor growth by 88% or more, depending on the case. In some animals involved in the study, the tumor disappeared completely. Even when Reishi does not completely eliminate tumors, it still prevents them from growing.It is believed to modulate many components of the immune system such as antigen-presenting cells, NK cells, T and B lymphocytes.

Jin X, Ruiz Beguerie J, Sze DM, Chan GC. Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi mushroom) for cancer treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Apr 5;4(4):CD007731. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007731.pub3. PMID: 27045603; PMCID: PMC6353236.

Xu Z, Chen X, Zhong Z, Chen L, Wang Y. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides: immunomodulation and potential anti-tumor activities. Am J Chin Med. 2011;39(1):15-27. doi: 10.1142/S0192415X11008610. PMID: 21213395.

  • Turkey tail mushroom (turkey tail)
  1. Turkey tail mushroom contains beta-glucan polysaccharides, which are thought to stimulate natural killer cells, boosting your dog’s immunity and healing abilities. A study published in Evidence-Based Complementary Medicine looked at the effectiveness of turkey tail mushrooms in dorms emangiosarcoma is a form of vascular cancer that spreads quickly (spreading to other parts of the body). It’s a highly aggressive condition that’s mostly found in a dog’s spleen.

Guggenheim AG, Wright KM, Zwickey HL. Immune Modulation From Five Major Mushrooms: Application to Integrative Oncology. Integr Med (Encinitas). 2014 Feb;13(1):32-44. PMID: 26770080; PMCID: PMC4684115.

PDQ Integrative, Alternative, and Complementary Therapies Editorial Board. Medicinal Mushrooms (PDQ®): Patient Version. 2022 Jul 29. In: PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute (US); 2002-. Available from: